吕氏贵宾会网址 > 科技头版 > 油轮溢油不是海洋污染的主要来源,暗夜保护研究
油轮溢油不是海洋污染的主要来源,暗夜保护研究
2020-01-01 116

原标题:人造光影响北极浮游动物 | 暗夜爱护斟酌

May 23, 2002Tanker spills not the major source of ocean pollutionit is consumers of oil -- not the ships that transport it -- who are responsible for most petroleum that enters U.S. waters says a new report fromthe National Academies' National Research Council.Nearly 85 percent of the 29 million gallons of petroleum that enter North American ocean waters each year as a result of human activities comes from land-based runoff, polluted rivers, airplanes, and small boats and jet skis, says the report. Less than 8 percent comes from tanker or pipeline spills. Oil exploration and extraction are responsible for only 3 percent of the petroleum that enters the sea. Another 47 million gallons seep into the ocean naturally from the seafloor. "Oil spills can have long-lasting and devastating effects on the ocean environment, but we need to know more about damage caused by petroleum from land-based sources and small watercraft since they represent most of the oil leaked by human activities," said James M. Coleman, chair of the committee that wrote the report, and Boyd Professor, Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. "This doesn't mean we can ignore hazards from drilling and shipping, however. Although new safety standards and advances in technology reduced the amount of oil that spilled during extraction and transport in the last two decades, the potential is still there for a large spill, especially in regions with lax safety controls."To better monitor how much oil consumers and industry are depositing in the ocean, federal agencies should work with state and local environmental bureaus to develop a system for documenting sources of runoff, the report says. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency should continue efforts to phase out older, inefficient two-stroke engines, which power many jet skis and other small watercraft.The committee's calculations of how much petroleum is added to the sea each year were based on data from a variety of sources. The accuracy of these data is much improved since the Research Council's last assessment in 1985. The amount of petroleum released into North American and global waters is less than previously thought, the committee found. At the same time, however, new studies show that the environmental effects of a major oil spill are longer lasting than once thought and that even small amounts of petroleum can seriously damage marine life and ecosystems.SOURCES OF OIL IN THE SEAOil slicks visible from the air and birds painted black by oil get the most public attention, but it is consumers of oil -- not the ships that transport it -- who are responsible for most of what finds its way into the ocean, the report says. For example, oil runoff from cars and trucks is increasing in coastal areas where the population is growing and roads and parking lots are expanding to accommodate it. Rivers polluted by oil in waste water or the improper disposal of petroleum products are a significant source of oil in the sea as well. In addition, older two-stroke engines still found on many recreational boats and jet skis were purposely designed to discharge gasoline and oil. Land runoff and recreational boating account for nearly three-quarters of the 25 million gallons of petroleum released into the sea annually through the consumption of petroleum. Other sources of oil from human activities include military and commercial jets that occasionally jettison excess fuel over the ocean and ships that release oil from their engines while in port or at sea.More than one-half of the land-based oil contamination along the North American coastline occurs between Maine and Virginia, where there are dense seaside populations, many cities, several refineries, and high energy use, the report says. About 20 percent of the land-based petroleum entering North American coastal waters ends up in the Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf also receives most of the oil and gas that is emitted by recreational boats and jet skis.The U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Maritime Administration should work with shipowners domestically and internationally through the International Maritime Organization to expand and enforce shipping standards that already have contributed to a decline in oil spills and operational discharges, the report adds. Annually, about 2.7 million gallons of petroleum spill into North American waters while being transported to market. However, the report cautions that large tanker spills are still possible, especially in areas without stringent safety procedures and inspections. The U.S. Department of Transportation and EPA also should continue work with state environmental agencies and industry to assess and minimize the potential for a significant spill from pipelines and other coastal facilities.The exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas introduces 880,000 gallons of petroleum to North American waters each year. These leaks are concentrated where oil-drilling rigs are at work in the Gulf of Mexico and in waters off southern California, northern Alaska, and eastern Canada. The amount of petroleum released during extraction has dropped significantly, but the threat of a spill cannot be ignored, the report says. To that end, the U.S. Minerals Management Service should continue to work with state environmental agencies and industry to promote extraction techniques that minimize accidental or intentional releases of petroleum.The report also says federal ocean-management agencies should try to develop more accurate techniques for estimating the amount of oil that seeps into the ocean from geologic formations beneath the seafloor. This would help researchers distinguish the effects of petroleum released by natural processes versus human activities, and study how marine life responds to the introduction of oil.ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTSThe impact of an oil spill on marine life is not directly related to the size of the spill, since even a small spill in an ecologically sensitive area can have long-term adverse effects, the report says. A spill's influence also depends on the type and amount of toxins present in the petroleum product being released. The riskiest toxins are a class of organic compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs. Growing evidence suggests that PAHs and other toxic compounds can have adverse effects on marine species even at very low concentrations. This means chronic releases from runoff and recreational boating may inflict more damage than previously thought, and that the effects of large spills may last as long as residual oil persists in the area. Significant research has been conducted in recent years -- particularly in the wake of the EXXON VALDEZ spill -- confirming that large oil spills can be devastating to the marine environment. They kill fish, mammals, birds, and their offspring; destroy plant life; and reduce the food supply for organisms that survive. Spills also disrupt the structure and function of marine communities and ecosystems, although more research is needed to better understand how spills affect overall populations, the report says. To aid this research, a federal rapid-response team should be created to rush to oil spills and collect real-time data. Where oil seeps naturally into the ocean, local marine ecosystems have been significantly altered, the report says. For example, in seepage areas in the Santa Barbara Channel off California, there is little diversity among organisms, which consist mainly of bacteria and a few invertebrate species.Less is known about how chronic releases from sources such as land runoff and inefficient two-stroke engines on boats and jet skis affect marine ecology. The report calls for the federal government, in cooperation with academia and industry, to launch a major research effort aimed at better understanding how chronic releases of petroleum affect the marine environment, especially when organisms in already polluted waters are exposed to the multiple toxins found in oil. Studying the small, chronic releases that occur at oil-drilling sites may aid this effort.Worldwide, about 210 million gallons of petroleum enter the sea each year from the extraction, transportation, and consumption of crude oil and the products refined from it, with an additional 180 million gallons coming from natural seepage, the report says.The study was sponsored by the U.S. Minerals Management Service, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Navy, American Petroleum Institute, and the National Ocean Industries Association. A committee roster follows.

编者按:1879年5月15日,电灯问世,今后非常的大的变动了人人的生育生活方法。从此约150年中,人类“日出而作,日出而作”的本来日夜节律,稳步被人工照明所代替,而掌控照明科技(science and technologyState of Qatar的人类成为暗夜的支配。那黄金时代多级变革,无疑是提升的,带给了宏大的有利。

但是,科学技术是风流倜傥把双刃剑。近来更是多的研讨发掘,人造光也或许是生龙活虎种污染源,——光污染。自然的暗夜以至在日夜更动的自然律动中通过数以万年计演化于今的浮游生物和生态系统,人工照明带给的“光污染”,让深深篆刻在它们DNA里的密码不适于,并带给风流倜傥种类的难题。从前早就有雅量商量证明,光污染对于昆虫、海洋动物、迁徙鸟类等可能带给的深重影响,如让它们失去方向,骚扰它们的本来作息,招致致命后果。

光污染、暗夜、星空遗产等概念,对中国公民来说还并不熟谙。为此,中华夏族民共和国绿发会创建了星空工委,意在珍爱暗夜、重塑星空作为遗产的市场股票总值,并引起大家对光污染的认识。

光污染对杨世元洋生态系统等会带给如何的熏陶?近日生龙活虎篇新的钻研呈现:人造光对北极浮游动物也发出了非常大的影响。切磋人口发掘,在浮游动物群落中,光照指引它们垂直运动的周期性行为,即日夜垂直迁徙(DVMs)。中华夏族民共和国绿发会星空工委现将此文翻译分享如下。

译者按/Linda 翻译/Cat 编/Angel

Artificial Light Affects Zooplankton in Arctic

人造光影响北极浮游动物

on AUGUST 14, 2018

2018年8月14日

During the polar night in the high Arctic, a team of scientists discovered “that certain aspects of the polar marine ecosystems are extremely sensitive to potential light pollution and that traditional sampling techniques are insufficient to study them.”

在北超高演度地区的极夜时期,二个物工学家团队意识,“在南北极海洋生态系统中,有些方面临秘密的光污染最为敏感,而守旧的取样品领还不足以商讨这么些方面。”

Using a Jetyak, an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) equipped with an engine and scientific instruments, researchers studied the behavior of zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment and compared that to how zooplankton behaved in a light-polluted environment close to their traditional research vessels. They observed that despite the fact that the sun never rose above the horizon, zooplankton responded to small changes in natural light in areas without light pollution.

切磋人口利用了Jetyak来相比浮游动物在无光污染意况、甚至在直面守旧考查船舶的光污染条件下的展现,Jetyak是生龙活虎种电动开车的无人艇(Autonomous Surface Vehicle, 简单的称呼ASV),它配置了贰个引擎和科学商量设施。切磋人口开采,即使阳光从未升到海平面以上,在无光污染区域里,浮游动物对自然光的神秘变化或然做出了感应。

图片 1

依靠美利哥国度深海及大批量总署(NOAA卡塔尔国等单位的天文物工学家绘制的“满世界光污染地图”,地球上四分之四人口无法看出灿烂星空。图/NOAA

Light is an important cue for many biological processes. The study notes, “the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime.” In zooplankton communities, light induces cyclical patterns of vertical movements called diel vertical migrations (DVMs). According to the authors of this study, “The DVM of zooplankton is the most widespread and synchronized movement of biomass on the planet and thus is one of the most important factors to consider for understanding marine food-web interactions and ecosystem structures.”

只可是两种海洋生物进程的入眼时域信号。那篇商讨提议:“浮游动物与周边的普照紧凑相关。”在浮游动物群落中,光照引导它们垂直运动的周期性行为,即白天和黑夜垂直迁徙(DVMs)。那项商量的小编表示,“浮游动物的白天和黑夜垂直迁徙行为是地球上布满程度最广、步骤最和煦的生物量大搬迁,因而,如要掌握海洋食品网络的相互作用、生态系统构造,它们也是最亟需思忖的入眼因素之生龙活虎。

图片 2

来源:IDA

However, zooplankton display a strong light-escape response. The scientists found that the artificial light emitted from traditional sampling platforms interferes with the natural rhythms of zooplankton to a depth of 100 meters. This study emphasizes the need for changes to the lighting used on traditional sampling platforms in aquatic environments in order to collect accurate data. The study notes, “Despite an increased awareness that small changes in natural light affect the behavior of marine organisms in naturally dim environments, we are only starting to understand how and why organisms respond to changes in light that occur on scales below what most commercial sensors can detect.”

只是,浮游动物对光照表现了斐然的潜逃反应。物教育学家开采,守旧采集样板平台产生的人造光影响了深至100米浮游动物的自然节律。该项研讨重申,为访谈正确数据,改动水生景况传统采集样本平台运用的照明方式拾分供给。商量申明,尽管大家越来越开采到自然光细小的转移会潜移默化海洋生物在本来昏暗遭遇中的行为,但大家才刚起始询问海洋生物怎么着甚至为什么会对光变化做出反应,而那些生成是在好多生意传感器探测范围内产生的。

This study has implications far beyond the design of research vessels. The researchers are concerned that sea ice loss (caused by global warming) is leading to more human activity in the Arctic by creating openings for new shipping routes and oil and gas exploration. The artificial lights that will come with these human activities will undoubtedly affect natural rhythms and biological processes of zooplankton.

该商量的含义远领先研讨船舶的设计。切磋人口忧虑,海冰的扫除(由环球变暖引起)会吸引北南北极区更加的多的人类活动——开采新的航海运输路径和开荒重油、天然气。 那些人类活动带给的人造光,无疑会影响浮游动物的当然节律和生物过程。

Zooplankton are small organisms that, together with phytoplankton, form a large part of the base of the food chain in the oceans. And as the study notes, zooplankton play an important role in the sequestration of carbon dioxide, carrying millions of tons of carbon vertically in the ocean during their daily cyclical movements.

浮游动物是少年老成种小型生物,与浮游植物合营产生了海洋食品链的重中之重底蕴部分。正如该斟酌建议的,浮游动物对稳固二氧化碳有主要的成效,它们的日常周期性运动,垂直指引了数百万吨的碳。

It is clear that artificial light affects zooplankton, which ripples through the ecosystems of the ocean. This then affects the atmosphere above the surface of the water. In order to further understand these relationships, research vessels need to be designed with the light sensitivity of zooplankton in mind.

很扎眼,人造光影响浮游动物,进而波及海洋生态系统,接着又会潜濡默化水面上的大气。为了越来越深刻摸底它们的涉及,设计考察船舶需求谨记浮游动物对光的敏感性。

译/Cat 审/Linda 编/Angel

【参谋文献】

  1. Ludvigsen, M., Berge, J., Geoffroy, M., Cohen, J. H., Pedro, R., Nornes, S. M., … & Johnsen, G. (2018). Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance. Science advances, 4(1), eaap9887.

【最早的文章链接】

Artificial Light Affects Zooplankton in Arctic

Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance

星空人才作育布置

【公共收益募捐】星空人才作育安插

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